Summary
  1. A homogenous mixture of two or more substances with uniform composition is called solution. A solution has two components, solute and solvent. A solute is the substance which is dissolved and is in smaller quantity while a solvent is the substance in which a solute is dissolved and is in larger quantity.
  2. There are nine types of solutions depending upon the nature of solute and solvent. If solvent is liquid then the solution is considered as true solution.
  3. A solution in which the amount of the solute is less than it has the capacity to dissolve in large quantity of solvent is called unsaturated solution.
    The solution which contains maximum amount of solute in a given solvent at a specific temperature and no more solute dissolves in it is called saturated solution. In a saturated solution there is a dynamic equilibrium between dissolved and un dissolved solute.
  4. A super saturated solution contains greater amount of dissolved solute than that are present in a saturated solution. It is obtained by dissolving solute in saturated solution on heating. More solute would dissolve on heating saturated solution.
  5. The solubility is defined as the amount of solute in gram dissolved at a given temperature in 100 gram of the solvent. Many factors affect the solubility of a solute in a solvent which are temperature, pressure (for gases), nature of solute and solvent. Generally the solubility of a solute increases with-the rise in temperature except gases whose solubility decreases with the rise in temperature. The solubility of gases in a solvent is generally less, but the solubility of gases increases with increase in pressure and is directly proportional  to pressure applied. It is governed by Henery's law. Nature of solute and solvent also affects on the solubility. It is well known fact that like dissolves like.
  6. Crystallization is the process in which dissolved solute comes out of the solution and forms crystals. Crystals are homogenous solids bounded by plane faces, having sharp edges, regular and definite-shapes. They have sharp melting points.
  7. Crystallization may occur by the process of evaporation or by cooling heated solution. In a solution the amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent is known its concentration. The solution that contains less amount of solute as compared to the amount of solvent is known as dilute solution and the solution that contains greater amount of solute as compared to the amount of the solvent is known as "concentrated solution".
  8. The different units in which the concentrations of the solutions are expressed are molarity, molality, mole fractions, percent concentrations.
    Molarity is defined as the number of moles of the solute, dissolved per dm3 or liter of the solution. It is denoted by M.
    Molality is defined as the number of moles of the solute, dissolved per kg or 1000 gram of the solvent. It is denoted by m.
    Mole fraction is defined as the ratio of moles of solute or solvent to the total moles of the solution. It is denoted by X.
    For example =No. of moles of solute/
    Total moles of solute and solvent in the solution
    Percent concentration is based on mass (M) and volume (V) of the components solute and solvent in the solution. There are four different ways in which percent concentration can be expressed.
    % M/M: %M/V: %V/M: %V/V:
  9. A suspension is a mixture in which particles are of one or more substances having size larger than 1000 nanometer (n.m) (1000 n.m or 1000 xl09m). In suspension the solute particles are not soluble in solvent and can be removed by filteration because the solute Particles are big enough to pass from the pores of filter papers. Suspension is heterogeneous.

 

 
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