Summary

 

  1. Chemical bonds hold groups of atoms together to form molecules or solids. Bonding occurs when a group of atoms can lower its total energy by combining.
  2. Bonds can be classified into two main types; ionic bond and covalent bond.
  3. Electronegativity is defined as the relative ability of an atom in a molecule to attract the shared electrons in a bond to itself. The Electronegativity difference of the bonded atoms determines the polarity of that bond.
  4. A covalent bond may be single bond, a double bond or a triple bond, depending on whether the two atoms share one, two or three pairs of electrons.
  5. The co-ordinate covalent bond is formed only when an atom with an unshared pair of electrons in its valence shell donates a pair of electrons to another atom or ion that needs a pair of electrons to acquire a stable electronic configuration.
  6. Covalent molecules are partially ionic, if they exist between two unlike atoms and their ionic character depends upon difference in electro-negativities of bonded atoms.
  7. Metallic bond is the electrostatic attraction between positive ions and electrons of the atoms.
  8. A hydrogen bond is a dipole-dipole attractive force that exists between two polar molecules, containing a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an atom of F, O or N. Water is best example of hydrogen bonding.
 
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