Summary
  1. Chemistry is the branch of science that deals with the properties, composition and structure of matter. It also deals with the principles and laws governing the changes involved in the matter.
  2. Chemistry is as old as human civilization. Over the centuries chemistry has undergone remarkable progress and was used in pottery making, glass making, dyeing and in metallurgies.
  3. Greek philosophers (347 to 460 B.C) Plato, Aristotle, Democritus and many others contributed in the early developments of chemistry in a number of ways. The concepts about elements, atoms and chemical reactions were introduced by them. However they developed little theoretical knowledge in chemistry. Their works were mostly empirical.
  4. The Muslim period started from 600 A.D and ended about 16001 in the history of chemistry and was known as the period of alchemia. During the first four centuries of Hijra, the Muslim scientists contributed richly towards many branches of science, especially in the field of chemistry and introduced scientific methods and experimentations. The alchemists developed and used many laboratory equipments, such as funnels, beakers, crucibles, retorts for distillation, balances etc. The modern scientific knowledge is based on the contributions of these Muslim scientists or scholars like Jabir-Ibne-Haiyan, Al-Razi, Al Beruni, Ibne-Sina, etc.
  5. Modern chemistry began in the 17th and 18th century as a result of experimentations, free discussion and communication of work of chemists throughout the world. Robert Boyle is described as the father of modern chemistry. J.J. Berzelius introduced the idea of symbols, formulae and chemical equations to make the study of chemistry more systematic. J.J Thomson, Henry Becqueral, Rutherford, Neil Bohr, M.Curie led to the discoveries of structure of atom, radioactivity which opened the door of present nuclear age.
  6. Chemistry has great impact on the society. It has important practical applications in the society, in medicines in modern technology, industries, environmental composition and its protection from environmental hazards.
  7. There are various branches of chemistry which are physical chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, industrial chemistry, environmental chemistry, nuclear chemistry, etc.
  8. Workers on the same phenomenon, then a theory is developed. A good theory predicts new facts and figures, unrevealing new relationships The observed natural phenomenon had to be explained by different scientific methods in systematic manner. The scientific approach in chemistry can be described through observations, hypothesis, theory and law.
    Observation is the basic tool for elaborating a phenomenon it may vary from person to person according to his own skill. It is one of the scientific approaches in chemistry.
    After observation of a phenomenon, scientist ponders over it and carries out relevant experiments and arrives at a possible explanation for the nature of the phenomenon. This explanation which is a trial idea is known as hypothesis. A hypothesis is liable to undergo changes as a result of further investigations. When the hypothesis is supported by a large number of different types of observations and experiments by other between naturally occurring phenomenon. When a theory is tested again and again and is found fit according to the facts, giving valued predictions, is called as scientific law

 

 
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